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Surface mining method selection

  • Underground Mining Methods EXCELLENCE IN MINING

    Jul 21, 2016· Caving methods of mining are varied and versatile and involve caving the ore and/or the overlying rock.Subsidence of the surface normally occurs afterward. Longwall mining is a caving method particularly well adapted to horizontal seams, usually coal, at some depth. In this method, a face of considerable length (a long face or wall) is maintained, and as the mining progresses, the overlying

  • Surface Mining Surface Mining Mining

    Surface mining is the predominant exploitation method worldwide. In the USA, surface mining contributes about 85% of all minerals exploitation (excluding petroleum and natural gas). Almost all metallic ore (98%) and non-metallic ore (97%), and 61% of the coal is mined using surface methods in the USA (Hartman and Mutmansky, 2002).

  • Planning Considerations For Transition From Open Pit To

    Key considerations to evaluate are: open pit stability, shaft stability, dilution, mud rushes and air blasts, and mining method selection. Planning Considerations: The efficient transition from open pit mining to an underground operation requires extensive planning. For a large mining operation, planning could last as long as 20 years.

  • Method Selection - A Numerical Approach

    In the past, selection of a mining method for a new property was based primarily on operating experience at similar type deposits and on methods already in use in the district of the deposit. Then, the chosen method was modified during the early years of mining as ground conditions and ore character were bet- ter understood.

  • Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review

    Key words: Equipment Selection, Surface Mining, Shovel-Truck Productivity, Mining Method Selection, Multi-Commodity Network Flow Introduction The general Equipment Selection Problem (ESP) is to choose a collection of compatible, but not necessarily homogeneous, items of equipment to perform a speci ed task. In many applications,

  • Equipment selection for high selective T excavation

    In this paper, therefore, selection of the best possible equipment and production method was identified to achieve high selective mining at SLE. The research found that two different high selective mining methods were suitable for selective excavation of the B3 seam, which were hydraulic excavator and truck and surface miner and truck combinations.

  • The Actual Difference Between Surface and Underground Mining

    In all methods of surface mining, first, the overburden is stripped off using earthmovers.Then, bucket-wheel excavators remove the ore, which is loaded into haul trucks with shovel loaders. When the deposit is exhausted, the overburden is refilled in the crater, and the land is restored with the local vegetation.

  • Alabama Surface Mining Commission TECHNICAL MANUAL

    methods have been found to be inaccurate and their results hard to reproduce. One method that is considered accurate and reproducible is the point-frequency method. This is the method used by the Office of Surface Mining and by the Alabama Surface Min ing Commission. Three ways to apply the point-frequency method will be described.

  • (PDF) Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining

    Mining Methods, Surface mining Depend on wa ter or another liquid (e.g., dilute sulfuric acid, weak cyanide solution, or ammonium c arbonate) to e xtract the miner al.

  • Open Pit Mining - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Surface mining is a process whereby soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed. the selection of mining methods is based on economics as influenced by the topography, thickness of overburden, and character of the resource. open-pit mining Mining. a method of mining in which the surface excavation is open for the duration of

  • Selection of overburden surface mining method in West

    The optimal mining method has the highest priority percentage. The results of these adjustments for the cost criteria can be seen in Table 8. Results show that the optimal mining method selection continues to be the SM mining method until the of cost priority percentage is increased by approximately 20 %.

  • Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review

    There are several methods of surface mining, including open-pit, stripping, dredging and mountain-top removal. This paper focuses on open-pit surface mining, which involves removing ore from a large hole in the ground (sometimes referred to as a borrow-pit). 1 Burt and Caccetta: Equipment Selection

  • Geotechnical factors - QueensMineDesignWiki

    The strength of the ore and the surrounding rock is one of the most significant geotechnical factors in mining method selection. The strength and related stability of the rockmasses are important for all types of excavation, and are assessed using rockmass classification systems throughout a mine.

  • Determining the different cut-off grades in a mine - Basic

    Sep 25, 2017· In mine planning process, the cut-off grade is determined prior to producing the reserve physicals. The different cut-off grades are the break-even cut-off grade (BECOG), incremental cut-off grade (ICOG), mill cut-off grade (MCOG), and resource cut-off grade (RCOG).


    Surface Mining Methods After a mineral deposit has been discovered, delineated, and evaluated, the most appropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations.


    SURFACE MINING METHODS REFERENCE: BULLIVANT, DA. Current Surface Mining Techniques. Journal for the Transportation of Materials in Bulk: Bulk Solids Handling, vol 7, n6, December 1987, pp827-833. 2.1 Ore reserves Suitable for Surface Mining Ore reserves suitable for surface mini ng can be classified initially as;

  • Selection of overburden surface mining method in West

    Fig. 1 Surface miner (Wirtgen 2010) Selection of overburden surface mining method 307 123 material and it specifically addresses mining equipment such as electric and hydraulic shovels, and front-end wheel loaders. Module IV focuses on the SM, while Module V is developed to conduct comparative analyses among all mining unit operations.

  • 12. Mining methods and method selection

    12.5 Mining method selection-The mining principles and methods have evolved to meet the geomechanical and operational problems of various cases.-Final choice of mining method will reflect both the engineering properties of the orebody and its setting, and the engineering attributes of the various methods such as mining scale, production rate

  • Underground Mining Methods and Equipment

    surface is termed underground mining. Underground mining methods are usually employed when the depth of the deposit and/or the waste to ore ratio (stripping ratio) are too great to commence a surface operation. Once the economic feasibility has been verified, the most appropriate mining methods must be selected according to the

  • CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology - Princeton University

    the mining technologies currently in use on Federal leases and the potential for commer-cial mining technologies to extract Federal coal reserves from deep underground seams. The chapter discusses: three surface mining techniques that are used in the West: 1) area strip, 2) open pit, and 3) terrace pit; two methods of underground mining in

  • Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - EOLSS

    appropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations. The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining method is to compare the economic efficiency of extraction of the deposit by surface and underground mining methods . This section reviews surface mining methods and

  • Surface mining methods - oregeometry simplified.pdf

    Geological terms Dip and Strike on Geologic Maps. Dip and Strike on Geologic Maps. DIP is the acute angle that a rock surface makes with a horizontal plane. STRIKE is the direction of the line formed by the intersection of a rock surface with a horizontal plane. The sheet, the most common shape in which sedimentary deposits occur, is a tabular body separated from other rocks by bedding planes.

  • Chapter(4):Advanced Analytics and Mining Method Selection

    Therefore, there is a need for alternative methods, which can consider all known criteria related to surface and underground mining methods selection in the decision-making process. The sensitivity of this decision has led to different solutions introduced by different researchers.

  • Surface Mining Methods - ILO Encyclopaedia

    Mar 13, 2011· The selection of mining equipment is a function of the mine plan. Some of the factors considered in the selection of mine equipment include the topography of the pit and surrounding area, the amount of ore to be mined, the speed and distance the ore must be transported for processing and the estimated mine life, among others.

  • Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia

    Mining Methods 6 Fig. 3. Overall mining sequence of a typical surface coal mine in Australia (after Westcott et al., 2009). 2.1 Dragline method Dragline is the predominant mach ine which is used to remove the overburden and expose the coal when the deposit s characteristics match the draglines physical capabilities. Once

  • Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison

    Longitudinal Back, Flat-Back Mining Method Long-Wall StopingmMining Method. After starting an overhand stope the shape in which the back is carried is often of prime importance. In A, Fig. 2, is illustrated the method of carrying a flat or longitudinal back (the term long-wall is used sometimes when the vein lies nearly flat).

  • Mining method selection by multiple criteria decision

    Mining method selection is one of the most critical and problematic activities of mining engineering. The ultimate goals of mining dip, plunge, depth below the surface, grade distribution, quality of resource, etc. The basic components that define the ground conditions are: rock material shear strength, natural fractures and

  • 12. Mining methods and method selection

    -Final choice of mining method will reflect both the engineering properties of the orebody and its setting, and the engineering attributes of the various methods such as mining scale, production rate, selectivity, personal ingress requirements and extraction flexibility.

  • Surface mining strip, open pit, mountaintop removal

    The selection is based on technical and environmental aspects and surface mining is preferred to extract the minerals from the surface area. As compared to underground mining this method of mining removes soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit.

  • Models for Mining Equipment Selection

    The Mining Method selection problem focuses on choosing the correct excavation method for the given mining conditions. Generally, this research is based on anecdotal methods, where a feasible solution is sought, rather than an optimal solution. Much of the literature on mining method selection does not discuss equipment selection modelling in

  • Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review INFORMS

    One of the challenging problems for surface mining operation optimization is choosing the optimal truck and loader fleet. We refer to this problem as the equipment selection problem (ESP). In this paper, we describe the ESP in the context of surface mining and discuss related problems and applications.

  • MINING - DRA Global

    DRA Globals customised mining solutions include mining method selection, design, planning and full management of mining contractors to assist client teams.The organisations global team boasts impressive 600 years of combined experience in mining engineering.

  • Applications of Queuing Theory for Open-Pit Truck/Shovel

    Dec 19, 2012· Surface mining is the most common mining method worldwide, and open pit mining accounts One method of fleet selection involves the application of queuing theory to the haul cycle. Queuing theory was developed to model systems that provide service for randomly arising demands and predict the behavior of such systems.

  • factors in selecting mining equipment

    Request PDF on ResearchGate . Mining method selection by multiple criteria . in mining method selection and in the determination of weighting factors of any . program to select mining equipment and mining methods ( Bascetin et al., 2006). Contact US Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining; review. Apr 28, 2010 .


    The share of opencast methods has gone upto 70% of worlds total mineral production. The surface mining of hard rocks and ore demands drilling and blasting. But these techniques have many adverse effects on environment. So todays eco-conscious world demands introduction of improved technology for blast free, safe and eco-friendly mining.

  • Theoretical Basis for Multiple Criteria Analysis of

    The technological scheme of a hard rock surface mine is a multiple level production system of interdependently func-tioning elements. Selection of the optimum combination of its elements constitutes a complex multiple variant and criteria problem of decision making. In this paper describes the theoretical part of the method proposed for the quantitative analysis and selection of the most

  • Mining methods and method selection SpringerLink

    These are the ore sources, or stopes, the stope access and service openings, or stope development, and the permanent access and service openings. Irrespective of the method used to mine an orebody, similarities exist betwen the functions and the required geomechanical performances of the different types of non-production excavations.

  • Mining method selection and transition depth determination

    Mining method selection ;transition depth open-pit underground combined mining. 1. Introduction . Naturally, ore bodies come in every imaginable geometric shape. While surface hard rock mines apply the open-pit method to almost any ore configuration, a large number of underground mining methods have been developed primarily in response to the

  • Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining; review

    mining equipments selection. This system is able to involve the expert knowledge in primary and secondary selection of equipment for surface coal mines [3]. In 1990, another expert system, in order to classify equipment, was planned in the open pit coal mine of Britain with the help of fuzzy logic.

  • Proposal of Criteria for Selection of Dewatering Methods

    cost. If the situation doesn't obviously prejudge the selection of certain method the multivariant study taking under consideration all proposed criteria is recommended. The presented proposal is based on 40 years experience gained in about 100 surface mining

  • Selection of overburden surface mining method in West

    Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ia by analytical hierarchy process, International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, 2014, pp. 306-314, Volume 1, Issue 3, DOI: 10.1007/s40789-014-0019-0

  • Lesson 7.2: Mechanical Surface Mining Methods

    Lesson 7.2: Mechanical Surface Mining Methods - Introduction & Open Pit Mining. Earlier in the course, we discussed the factors that go into the selection of a mining method, and we listed the major mining methods. Why cant we use a single method to extract all minerals located near the surface? Consider the following examples:

  • [PDF] Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining

    Corpus ID: 13582522. Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining ; review @inproceedings{Lashgari2011MethodsFE, title={Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining ; review}, author={A. Lashgari and A. Yazdani and A. Sayadi}, year={2011} }

  • (PDF) Surface Mine Design - ResearchGate

    features influence the selection of a mining method and the plan fo r the ore development. Operating mines v ary in size from small underground mines (with

  • Surface Mining Methods - Blogger

    Dec 24, 2016· Surface Mining Methods,Health and safety,Hydraulic Mining Methods,Environmental aspects of surface mining,Solution Mining,Drilling and blasting , Production and Equipment Methods,Ore handling (conveyance),Hauling,Loading,Conventional Methods of Surface Mining,Pit planning and layout,Stripping overburden,Mining equipment selection

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